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Defying a 150-year-old rule for phase behavior

Science Daily - Vie, 18/09/2020 - 17:51
Today, researchers are defying a classical theory from American physicist Josiah Willard Gibbs, with proof of a five-phase equilibrium, something that many scholars considered impossible.

Shape matters for light-activated nanocatalysts

Science Daily - Vie, 18/09/2020 - 17:51
Points matter when designing nanoparticles that drive important chemical reactions using the power of light, according to recent research.

Undersea earthquakes shake up climate science

Science Daily - Vie, 18/09/2020 - 17:50
Sound generated by seismic events on the seabed can be used to determine the temperature of Earth's warming oceans.

Bacterial Outbreak Infects Thousands After Factory Leak In China

Slashdot - Science - Vie, 18/09/2020 - 16:00
schwit1 shares a report from CNN: Several thousand people in northwest China have tested positive for a bacterial disease, authorities said on Tuesday, in an outbreak caused by a leak at a biopharmaceutical company last year. The Health Commission of Lanzhou, the capital city of Gansu province, confirmed that 3,245 people had contracted the disease brucellosis, which is often caused by contact with livestock carrying the bacteria brucella. Another 1,401 people have tested as preliminarily positive, though there have been no fatalities reported, the city's Health Commission said. In total, authorities have tested 21,847 people out of the city's 2.9 million population. Brucellosis had been much more common in China in the 1980s, though it has since declined with the emergence of vaccines and better disease prevention and control. Still, there have been a smattering of brucellosis outbreaks around the world in the past few decades; an outbreak in Bosnia infected about 1,000 people in 2008, prompting the culling of sheep and other infected livestock. In the US, brucellosis has cost the federal government and livestock industry billions of dollars. About 60% of female bison at Yellowstone National Park carry the bacteria, according to national park authorities.

Read more of this story at Slashdot.

A better informed society can prevent lead poisoning disasters

Science Daily - Vie, 18/09/2020 - 14:45
An article address unresolved scientific questions that can help avert future lead poisoning disasters. A better-informed society can prevent such disasters from happening through improved risk assessment, anticipation and management of factors affecting lead release.

Like humans, chimpanzees can suffer for life if orphaned before adulthood

Science Daily - Vie, 18/09/2020 - 14:45
A new study shows that orphaned male chimpanzees are less competitive and have fewer offspring of their own than those who continue to live with their mothers. The remaining puzzle is, what is it that their mothers provide that keeps chimpanzees healthy and competitive?

Connecting the dots on food access

Science Daily - Vie, 18/09/2020 - 12:59
A new study simultaneously examined the preferences of community members and compared those with the community-based programs and resources available to identify the most viable strategies for addressing disparities in healthy food consumption.

New design principles for spin-based quantum materials

Science Daily - Vie, 18/09/2020 - 11:22
A new design criteria for enhancing the spin lifetime of a class of quantum materials could support Internet of Things devices and other resource-intensive technologies.

Solar storm forecasts for Earth improved with help from the public

Science Daily - Vie, 18/09/2020 - 10:33
Scientists used observations recorded by members of the public to increase accuracy of computer model predictions of when harmful CMEs will hit Earth.

Biologists create new genetic systems to neutralize gene drives

Science Daily - Vie, 18/09/2020 - 10:33
Addressing concerns about gene drive releases in the wild, scientists have developed two new genetic systems that halt or eliminate gene drives after release. Created in fruit flies, the e-CHACRs and ERACRs are powerful gene drive control mechanisms that were meticulously developed and tested at the genetic and molecular levels.

Engineers produce a fisheye lens that's completely flat

Science Daily - Vie, 18/09/2020 - 10:33
Engineers have designed a wide-angle lens that is completely flat. It is the first flat fisheye lens to produce crisp, 180-degree panoramic images.

Mapping the 1.6 billion people who live near forests

Science Daily - Vie, 18/09/2020 - 10:21
Global maps of places where people and forests coexist show that an estimated 1.6 billion people live within 5 kilometers of a forest. The assessment, based on data from 2000 and 2012, showed that of these 1.6 billion 'forest-proximate people,' 64.5 percent were located in tropical countries, and 71.3 percent lived in countries classified as low or middle income by the World Bank.

Raids and bloody rituals among ancient steppe nomads

Science Daily - Vie, 18/09/2020 - 09:42
Traces of violence on 1700 year old skeletons allow researchers to reconstruct warfare and sacrifices of nomads in Siberia. An international and interdisciplinary team of anthropologists, archaeologists and specialists in forensic sciences performed a detailed and revealing analysis of the traumas found on the skeletal remains.

Glyphosate residue in manure fertilizer decrease strawberry and meadow fescue growth

Science Daily - Vie, 18/09/2020 - 09:42
A new study finds that glyphosate residue from herbicides in manure fertilizer decrease the growth of strawberry and meadow fescue as well as runner production of strawberry.

Nose's response to odors more than just a simple sum of parts

Science Daily - Vie, 18/09/2020 - 09:42
Based on highly sensitive recordings of neuron activity in the noses of mice, researchers have found that olfactory sensory neurons can exhibit suppression or enhancement of response when odors are mixed, overturning a long-standing view that the response is a simple sum with more complex processing only happening at later stages.

Researchers develop simple method to 3D print milk products

Science Daily - Vie, 18/09/2020 - 09:42
Additive free, multimaterial 3D printing is achieved for milk-based products without temperature control.

Unverricht-Lundborg disease is more common in Finland than elsewhere in the world

Science Daily - Vie, 18/09/2020 - 09:42
Based on reported cases, Unverricht-Lundborg disease, also known as progressive myoclonic epilepsy-1A, EPM1, is more common in Finland than anywhere else in the world, a new study finds.

Promising computer simulations for stellarator plasmas

Science Daily - Vie, 18/09/2020 - 09:42
The turbulence code GENE (Gyrokinetic Electromagnetic Numerical Experiment), has proven to be very useful for the theoretical description of turbulence in the plasma of tokamak-type fusion devices. Extended for the more complex geometry of stellarator-type devices, computer simulations with GENE now indicate a new method to reduce plasma turbulence in stellarator plasmas. This could significantly increase the efficiency of a future fusion power plant.

How researchers look at the bird brain in action

Science Daily - Vie, 18/09/2020 - 09:42
How do birds make decisions and which brain regions are particularly active when they solve tasks? Researchers are investigating these questions. So far, only anesthetized birds and therefore passive experiments could be examined using the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Thus, the examination of brain processes during active tasks was not possible. Now the researchers have constructed an experimental set-up which allows them to carry out fMRI examinations on awake pigeons and thus also investigate cognitive processes for the first time.

VLBA makes first direct distance measurement to magnetar

Science Daily - Vie, 18/09/2020 - 09:42
Using the VLBA, astronomers have made the first direct geometric measurement of the distance to a magnetar. This precision measurement to one of the most magnetic objects in the Universe could help scientists determine if such objects are responsible for generating the mysterious Fast Radio Bursts.

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