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What Time Is It On the Moon?

Slashdot - Science - Hace 58 mins 31 segs
Satellite navigation systems for lunar settlements will require local atomic clocks. Scientists are working out what time they will keep. From a report: It's not obvious what form a universal lunar time would take. Clocks on Earth and the Moon naturally tick at different speeds, because of the differing gravitational fields of the two bodies. Official lunar time could be based on a clock system designed to synchronize with UTC, or it could be independent of Earth time. Representatives of space agencies and academic organizations worldwide met in November 2022 to start drafting recommendations on how to define lunar time at the European Space Research and Technology Centre of the European Space Agency (ESA) in Noordwijk, the Netherlands. Decisions must be made soon, says Patrizia Tavella, who leads the time department at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in Sevres, France. If an official lunar time is not established, space agencies and private companies will come up with their own solutions, she says. "This is why we want to raise an alert now, saying let's work together to take a common decision." The most pressing need for lunar time comes from plans to create a dedicated global satellite navigation system (GNSS) for the Moon, similar to how GPS and other satellite navigation networks enable precise location tracking on Earth. Space agencies plan to install this lunar GNSS from around 2030. ESA approved a lunar satellite navigation project called Moonlight at its ministerial council meeting on 22 and 23 November 2022 in Paris, and NASA established a similar project, called Lunar Communications Relay and Navigation Systems, last January. Until now, Moon missions have pinpointed their locations using radio signals sent to large antennas on Earth at scheduled times. But with dozens of missions planned, "there's just not enough resources to cover everybody," says Joel Parker, an engineer who works on lunar navigation at the Goddard Center.

Read more of this story at Slashdot.

Contact lenses to treat dry eye syndrome

Science Daily - Hace 1 hora 54 mins
Engineers have developed a contact lens prototype that is specially designed to prevent contact lens-induced dry eye (CLIDE). The lens alleviates this condition by facilitating tear flow in response to normal eye blinking. This can relieve the discomfort, visual impairment, and risk of inflammation experienced by millions of CLIDE sufferers.

Honey bee colony loss in the U.S. linked to mites, extreme weather, pesticides

Science Daily - Hace 1 hora 54 mins
Honey bee colony loss across the United States over the last five years is primarily related to the presence of parasitic mites, nearby pesticides, and extreme weather events as well as challenges with overwintering, according to a new study. The study took advantage of novel statistical methods and is among the first to concurrently consider a variety of potential honey bee stressors at a national scale.

Why are muskies the fish of 10,000 casts? Study explains

Science Daily - Hace 1 hora 54 mins
Researchers got into the minds of muskies to learn what personality traits make the fish more likely to strike. In the process, they learned valuable lessons that could help conserve the important aquatic predators.

Researchers demonstrate non-invasive method for assessing burn injuries

Science Daily - Hace 1 hora 54 mins
Researchers combine a hand-held scanner with a neural network based on terahertz spectroscopy that can predict burn healing with 93% accuracy. The research has the potential to significantly improve burn healing outcomes by guiding surgical treatment plans.

Mating causes 'jet lag' in female fruit flies, changing behavior

Science Daily - Hace 1 hora 54 mins
An innovative technique finds seminal fluid protein transferred from male to female fruit flies during mating changes the expression of genes related to the fly's circadian clock.

Novel cancer therapy extends lives of terminally ill dogs

Science Daily - Hace 1 hora 54 mins
Stem cells have been modified to carry a therapy to treat companion animal patients with late-stage cancer, preserving good quality of life and extending their lives, potentially leading to better understanding of cancer treatments and their use in humans.

Researchers work to reduce the amount of precious metals in catalytic converters

Science Daily - Hace 1 hora 54 mins
The precious metals, such as platinum, palladium and rhodium, in catalytic converters make the vehicle devices attractive to thieves, but researchers are working to reduce the amount of precious metals needed in them -- down to single atoms -- while still maximizing their effectiveness. In recent studies researchers showed that they could, respectively, use atomic platinum to control pollutants and operate the system at lower temperatures, which is crucial to removing harmful chemicals when a vehicle first starts.

These ants don't just walk randomly; they 'meander' systematically

Science Daily - Hace 1 hora 54 mins
If you've ever watched an ant searching for food, you probably assumed that they were just covering ground in a random fashion. But a study now finds that at least one species of rock ant doesn't walk randomly at all. Instead, their search combines systematic meandering with random walks interspersed.

Some carnivorous plants evolved to eat poop instead of bugs. And they're better off for it.

Live Science - Hace 2 horas 39 mins
Former bug-eating plants, which evolved to feed on animal droppings instead, have a more nutritious diet than their carnivorous cousins, a new study finds.

A neuro-chip to manage brain disorders

Science Daily - Hace 2 horas 48 mins
Researchers have combined low-power chip design, machine learning algorithms, and soft implantable electrodes to produce a neural interface that can identify and suppress symptoms of various neurological disorders.

Vast subterranean aqueduct in Naples once 'served elite Roman villas'

Live Science - Hace 3 horas 35 mins
Once played in by local children, a vast tunnel that goes through a hill in Naples, Italy, is actually a Roman aqueduct, archaeologists say.

Want a stronger biodegradable plastic? Add a 'pinch' of cream of tartar

Science Daily - Hace 4 horas 14 mins
Cooking a delicious risotto and making plastics are actually very similar processes. In both, ingredients come together and are heated to create a product, but current recipes for synthesizing bioplastics often fall flat, producing flimsy materials. So, taking a hint from chefs, researchers now report on a way to 'season' biodegradable plastics to make them stronger. It just takes a 'pinch' of cream of tartar (tartaric acid) or citric acid.

UK's Overseas Territories at ongoing risk from wide range of invasive species

Science Daily - Hace 4 horas 14 mins
A new study has for the first time predicted which invasive species could pose a future threat to the UK's ecologically unique Overseas Territories.

New mathematical model shows how the body regulates potassium

Science Daily - Hace 4 horas 14 mins
Having levels of potassium that are too high or too low can be fatal. A new mathematical model sheds light on the often mysterious ways the body regulates this important electrolyte.

A fairy-like robot flies by the power of wind and light

Science Daily - Hace 4 horas 14 mins
The loss of pollinators, such as bees, is a huge challenge for global biodiversity and affects humanity by causing problems in food production. Researchers have now developed the first passively flying robot equipped with artificial muscle. Could this artificial fairy be utilized in pollination?

Coffee with milk may have an anti-inflammatory effect

Science Daily - Hace 4 horas 14 mins
Can something as simple as a cup of coffee with milk have an anti-inflammatory effect in humans? Apparently so, according to a new study. A combination of proteins and antioxidants doubles the anti-inflammatory properties in immune cells. The researchers hope to be able to study the health effects on humans.

Another promising step toward non-hormonal male contraceptives

Science Daily - Hace 4 horas 14 mins
Despite birth control existing for decades, almost none of the options specifically target sperm cells. Researchers are now developing approaches that target testosterone or otherwise interrupt the sperm's ability to fertilize an egg, yet these may not work for everyone. But now, researchers have identified a new candidate molecule that could become an effective non-hormonal contraceptive for many people who produce sperm.

A Drug Company Made $114 Billion Gaming America's Patent System

Slashdot - Science - Hace 5 horas 44 mins
The New York Times looks at the AbbVie's anti-inflammatory drug Humira and their "savvy but legal exploitation of the U.S. patent system." Though AbbVie's patent was supposed to expire in 2016, since then it's maintained a monopoly that generated $114 billion in revenue by using "a formidable wall of intellectual property protection and suing would-be competitors before settling with them to delay their product launches until this year." AbbVie did not invent these patent-prolonging strategies; companies like Bristol Myers Squibb and AstraZeneca have deployed similar tactics to maximize profits on drugs for the treatment of cancer, anxiety and heartburn. But AbbVie's success with Humira stands out even in an industry adept at manipulating the U.S. intellectual-property regime.... AbbVie and its affiliates have applied for 311 patents, of which 165 have been granted, related to Humira, according to the Initiative for Medicines, Access and Knowledge, which tracks drug patents. A vast majority were filed after Humira was on the market. Some of Humira's patents covered innovations that benefited patients, like a formulation of the drug that reduced the pain from injections. But many of them simply elaborated on previous patents. For example, an early Humira patent, which expired in 2016, claimed that the drug could treat a condition known as ankylosing spondylitis, a type of arthritis that causes inflammation in the joints, among other diseases. In 2014, AbbVie applied for another patent for a method of treating ankylosing spondylitis with a specific dosing of 40 milligrams of Humira. The application was approved, adding 11 years of patent protection beyond 2016. AbbVie has been aggressive about suing rivals that have tried to introduce biosimilar versions of Humira. In 2016, with Amgen's copycat product on the verge of winning regulatory approval, AbbVie sued Amgen, alleging that it was violating 10 of its patents. Amgen argued that most of AbbVie's patents were invalid, but the two sides reached a settlement in which Amgen agreed not to begin selling its drug until 2023. Over the next five years, AbbVie reached similar settlements with nine other manufacturers seeking to launch their own versions of Humira. All of them agreed to delay their market entry until 2023. A drug pricing expert at Washington University in St. Louis tells the New York Times that AbbVie and its strategy with Humira "showed other companies what it was possible to do." But the article concludes that last year such tactics "became a rallying cry" for U.S. lawmakers "as they successfully pushed for Medicare to have greater control over the price of widely used drugs that, like Humira, have been on the market for many years but still lack competition."

Read more of this story at Slashdot.

What is a squall?

Live Science - Hace 7 horas 18 mins
There are different types of squalls, including a sudden windy cold front and a short-term burst of heavy snow and wind.


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